World Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1920-4531 print, 1920-454X online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, World J Oncol and Elmer Press Inc
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Volume 10, Number 1, February 2019, pages 28-34

Cancer During Pregnancy: The Oncologist Overview


Table 1. Fetal Radiation Doses of the Most Frequent Used Imaging Methods in Oncology (Adapted From ACOG Committee Opinion. Guidelines for Diagnostic Imaging During Pregnancy and Lactation)
Fetal dose (mGys)
Health care practitioners should consider avoiding complementary studies that deliver fetal doses higher than 0.1 mGys. Doses up from 10 mGys are considered prohibitive. US: ultrasound.
0.001 - 0.1
  X-ray (head, chest, extremity)
  CT head and neck
  Cervical spine radiography
0.1 - 1.0
  X-ray abdomen/pelvis
  Lumbar spine radiography
  CT chest
1.0 - 10
  Abdominal CT
  Technetium-99m bone scintigraphy
10 - 50
  CT pelvis


Table 2. Studies of Long-Term Follow-Up of Individuals Exposed to Intrauterine Chemotherapy
NYears of follow-upFindings
Sokal et al (1960) [34]172 - 9.5All individuals reported to have no abnormalities.
Reynoso et al (1987) [35]61- 16One individual with two neoplasias (thyroid and neuroblastoma) and low IQ. All other individuals have no abnormalities.
Nulman et al (2001) [36]1111m - 22Neurocognitive evaluation normal in all individuals.
Aviles et al (2001) [37]846 - 29All individuals had normal growth, development, educational performance and behavior. Twelve individuals had normal offspring.
Amant et al (2012) [38]701.4 - 17.5Individuals exposed to chemotherapy during the second and third trimester. No difference in comparing to general population in regard to general health, development, cognition, behavior, cardiologic or neurologic diseases.


Table 3. Pregnancy Risk Classification of Some of the Most Used Targeted Therapies and Immunotherapies in Medical Oncology
DrugPregnancy/neonatal complicationTeratogenic
ImatinibNot associatedYes
RituximabNeonatal B-cell depletionNot associated
TrastuzumabOligohidramniosNot associated
LapatinibPossibly oligohydramniosYes (animal studies)
BevacizumabPossibly pre-eclampsiaNo data
IpilimumabAbortion, stillbirths, premature delivery and higher incidence of infant mortalityNot associated
PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitorsAbortion, stillbirths, premature delivery and higher incidence of infant mortalityNot associated