World Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1920-4531 print, 1920-454X online, Open Access
Article copyright, the authors; Journal compilation copyright, World J Oncol and Elmer Press Inc
Journal website


Volume 12, Number 6, December 2021, pages 206-213

Management of Male Breast Cancer: The Journey so Far and Future Directions


Figure 1.
Figure 1. Publication trend for MaBC. MaBC: male breast cancer.


Table 1. Overview of the Available Therapies Available for MaBC
SurgeryLumpectomy: feasible for very early disease and disease distant from the nipple-areolar complexSurgery should be individualized but current mainstay of therapy is still mastectomy
Mastectomy: Most common surgery for MaBC
Surgery for axillaClinically negative lymph nodes should be assessed with sentinel lymph node biopsyLymph node staging is an integral step for therapy planning and completed based on clinical exam
Clinically positive lymph nodes can be biopsied radiographically
Radiation therapyAdjuvant radiation therapy is recommended for stage I - III MaBCRadiation oncology evaluation should be considered for all MaBC patients
Hormonal therapyTamoxifen: hormone-positive MaBC are recommended tamoxifen for 5 years with option to increase duration to 10 yearsMajority of MaBC patients are candidates for hormone therapy with compliance being the biggest stumbling block
Aromatase inhibitors: prescribed in the recurrent of metastatic
Chemotherapy/targeted therapyCytotoxic chemotherapy has established role in MaBCChemotherapy is used in the adjuvant, neoadjuvant and palliative setting for MaBC
Trastuzumab for HER-2-positive patients can be exploited for additional survival benefit