Major Risk Factors in Head and Neck Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis of 12-Year Experiences

Anil Kumar Dhull, Rajeev Atri, Rakesh Dhankhar, Ashok K. Chauhan, Vivek Kaushal

Abstract


Background: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is the seventh most common type of cancer in the world and constitute 5% of the entire cancers worldwide. The global burden of HNC accounts for 650,000 new cases and 350,000 deaths worldwide every year and a major proportion of regional malignancies in India. More than 70% of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck are estimated to be avoidable by lifestyle changes, particularly by effective reduction of exposure to well-known risk factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of 12 years (2001 - 2012) of HNC patients attending RCC, PGIMS Rohtak was done. Total numbers of cancer patients seen were 26,295 and out of these 9,950 patients were of HNCs, which were retrospectively analyzed for their associated risk factors in different HNC subtypes. Most of the patients, i.e. 92.3%, were presented as locally advanced HNC (stages III and IV).

Results: It has been observed that smoking and alcohol are the strongest independent risk factors responsible for increased risk of HNC and are further having synergetic correlations.

Conclusion: The present study confirms the principal role of alcohol consumption and smoking in HNC carcinogenesis, as well as the differential associations with HNC subtypes, and a significant, positive, multiplicative interaction with different risk factors.




World J Oncol. 2018;9(3):80-84
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/wjon1104w


Keywords


Head and neck cancer (HNC); Alcohol; Smoking; Carcinogen; Risk factors; LAHNC; Lifestyle

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