Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Review of the Current Trend in Africa

Ayun Cassell, Bashir Yunusa, Mohamed Jalloh, Mouhamadou M. Mbodji, Abdourahmane Diallo, Madina Ndoye, Yoro Diallo, Issa Labou, Lamine Niang, Serigne M. Gueye

Abstract


Bladder cancer is the fourth most common cancer in men and the 11th most common cancer in woman accounting for 6.6% of all cancer cases. Approximately 70-75% bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). A few African studies have provided considerable rates of NMIBC as compared to western settings 70% to 85%. Critical step in the management of NMIBC is to prevent tumor recurrence which include transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) for staging and histological diagnosis. A second TURBT for high grade tumor, T1 tumors and intravesical adjuvant chemotherapy and immunotherapy are essential to reduce recurrence rate. Nevertheless, variant histology, multiple, progressive and recurrent high-grade tumors are best treated with early radical cystectomy. The African literature is scanty on the management of NMIBC. Most of the histological types are squamous cell bladder cancer and may not conform to transurethral resection only but rather radical cystectomy. Most of these patients are not suitable for any form of treatment as they present with advanced disease. However, there is an increasing incidence of urothelial cancer in Africa over the years due to urbanization. It is best that major investment is made in uro-oncological care to address the growing challenge of these subtypes.




World J Oncol. 2019;10(3):123-131
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/wjon1210

Keywords


Non-muscle invasive bladder cancer; Radical cystectomy; Transurethral resection of bladder tumor

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