Survival Prognosis, Tumor Immune Landscape, and Immune Responses of PPP1R18 in Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma and Its Potentially Double Mechanisms

Yi Wang, Shouyong Liu, Yinhao Chen, Bingye Zhu, Qianwei Xing

Abstract


Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the immunological and prognostic roles of protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 18 (PPP1R18) for overall survival (OS) in kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) patients, as well as the prediction of its potential mechanisms.

Methods: Based on PPP1R18 single gene expression matrices and clinical information from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC) and GSE6344 datasets, the relationships between PPP1R18 and prognosis/immunity were fully explored. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were applied to assess its independent prognostic ability and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was implemented to find its related pathways. Besides, we also explored possible mechanisms of PPP1R18 involved in KIRC.

Results: PPP1R18 was highly expressed in KIRC samples than in non-tumor tissues in TCGA, ICGC and GSE6344 datasets, with validations from quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in both cell lines and KIRC tissues (all P < 0.05). Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses indicated that PPP1R18 was also considered to be with independent prognostic ability in KIRC (both P < 0.01). GSEA results showed that PPP1R18 gene expression was significantly related to Chemokine, JAK STAT, MAPK, and NOTCH pathways. Furthermore, PPP1R18 was also firmly associated with microsatellite instability (MSI), tumor mutational burden (TMB), immune microenvironment, immune cells, immune checkpoints and immune infiltration (all P < 0.05). Analysis of tumor immune dysfunction and exclusion (TIDE) and Imvigor210 datasets suggested that patients with low PPP1R18 expression are more likely to benefit from immunotherapy. Finally, we identified two potential mechanisms of a classical competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) mechanism and an RNA-binding protein (RBP) involved mechanism of PPP1R18 in KIRC.

Conclusions: PPP1R18 played oncogenic and immunological roles of OS in KIRC, offering potential antigens for developing KIRC mRNA vaccines.




World J Oncol. 2022;13(1):27-37
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/wjon1446

Keywords


PPP1R18; Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma; Overall survival; Immunity; Mechanism

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