Should Internal Mammary Lymph Node Biopsy Be a Routine Step in Recurrent Breast Cancer? Report of Three Cases With Negative Axilla and Positive Internal Mammary Node

Stavros E Chatzopoulos, Kasim A Behranwala, Parveen Jayia, Ragheed Al-Mufti R, Susan J Cleator, Dimitri J Hadjiminas


Lymph node status is the most important clinicopathological prognostic factor for breast cancer patients and in most breast units it reflects only the axillary lymph nodes. A second often overlooked basin consists of the internal mammary lymph nodes (IMLNs) whose evaluation is not done as a routine step during the staging process. We highlight the need to consider incorporation of IMLNs into a patient's staging by presenting three cases of recurrent breast cancer with negative axilla and positive IMLN, a finding which altered their final management. We suggest that biopsy of IMLN should be a routine step in recurrent breast cancer when axillary lymphatics are disrupted by previous surgery although further research is required to define the optimal management of node positive cases.

World J Oncol. 2011;2(6):311-313


Breast cancer; Loco-regional recurrence; Internal mammary lymph node biopsy

Full Text: HTML PDF

Browse  Journals  


Journal of clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics

World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology

Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity

Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research

Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics






World Journal of Oncology, bimonthly, ISSN 1920-4531 (print), 1920-454X (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.            
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.