Genetically Predicted Causal Effects of Gut Microbiota and Gut Metabolites on Digestive Tract Cancer: A Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization Analysis

Xu Jia Li, Meng Ge Gao, Xu Xian Chen, Yu Ming Rong, Ling Li Huang

Abstract


Background: Evidence from numerous observational studies and clinical trials has linked gut microbiota and metabolites to digestive tract cancer. However, the causal effect between these factors remains uncertain.

Methods: Data for this study were obtained from the MiBioGen, TwinsUK Registry, and FinnGen (version R8). Two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis with inverse variance weighting method was primarily used, and the results were validated by heterogeneity analysis, pleiotropy test, and sensitivity analysis.

Results: At P < 5 × 10-8, our analysis identified four gut microbiotas as risk factors for digestive tract cancer and six as risk factors for colorectal cancer. Conversely, one gut microbiota exhibited protection against bile duct cancer, and two showed protective effects against stomach cancer. At P < 1 × 10-5, our investigation revealed five, six, three, eight, eight, and eight gut microbiotas as risk factors for esophageal, stomach, bile duct, liver, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers, respectively. In contrast, four, two, eight, two, two, and five gut microbiotas exhibited protective effects against these cancers. Additionally, GABA, a metabolite of gut microbiota, displayed a significant protective effect against colorectal cancer.

Conclusion: In conclusion, specific gut microbiota and metabolites play roles as risk factors or protective factors for digestive tract cancer, and a causal relationship between them has been established, offering novel insights into gut microbiota-mediated cancer development.




World J Oncol. 2023;14(6):558-569
doi: https://doi.org/10.14740/wjon1737

Keywords


Gut microbiota; Gut metabolites; Digestive tract cancer; Causal effect; Mendelian randomization

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