Genetically Predicted Causal Effects of Gut Microbiota and Gut Metabolites on Digestive Tract Cancer: A Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization Analysis

Xu Jia Li, Meng Ge Gao, Xu Xian Chen, Yu Ming Rong, Ling Li Huang


Background: Evidence from numerous observational studies and clinical trials has linked gut microbiota and metabolites to digestive tract cancer. However, the causal effect between these factors remains uncertain.

Methods: Data for this study were obtained from the MiBioGen, TwinsUK Registry, and FinnGen (version R8). Two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis with inverse variance weighting method was primarily used, and the results were validated by heterogeneity analysis, pleiotropy test, and sensitivity analysis.

Results: At P < 5 10-8, our analysis identified four gut microbiotas as risk factors for digestive tract cancer and six as risk factors for colorectal cancer. Conversely, one gut microbiota exhibited protection against bile duct cancer, and two showed protective effects against stomach cancer. At P < 1 10-5, our investigation revealed five, six, three, eight, eight, and eight gut microbiotas as risk factors for esophageal, stomach, bile duct, liver, pancreatic, and colorectal cancers, respectively. In contrast, four, two, eight, two, two, and five gut microbiotas exhibited protective effects against these cancers. Additionally, GABA, a metabolite of gut microbiota, displayed a significant protective effect against colorectal cancer.

Conclusion: In conclusion, specific gut microbiota and metabolites play roles as risk factors or protective factors for digestive tract cancer, and a causal relationship between them has been established, offering novel insights into gut microbiota-mediated cancer development.

World J Oncol. 2023;14(6):558-569


Gut microbiota; Gut metabolites; Digestive tract cancer; Causal effect; Mendelian randomization

Full Text: HTML PDF Suppl1 Suppl2 Suppl3 Suppl4 Suppl5 Suppl6 Suppl7 Suppl8 Suppl9 Suppl10 Suppl11 Suppl12 Suppl13 Suppl14 Suppl15 XML ()

Browse  Journals  


Journal of Clinical Medicine Research

Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism

Journal of Clinical Gynecology and Obstetrics


World Journal of Oncology

Gastroenterology Research

Journal of Hematology


Journal of Medical Cases

Journal of Current Surgery

Clinical Infection and Immunity


Cardiology Research

World Journal of Nephrology and Urology

Cellular and Molecular Medicine Research


Journal of Neurology Research

International Journal of Clinical Pediatrics



World Journal of Oncology, bimonthly, ISSN 1920-4531 (print), 1920-454X (online), published by Elmer Press Inc.                     
The content of this site is intended for health care professionals.
This is an open-access journal distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, which permits unrestricted
non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Creative Commons Attribution license (Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International CC-BY-NC 4.0)

This journal follows the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) recommendations for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals,
the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines, and the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing.

website:   editorial contact:
Address: 9225 Leslie Street, Suite 201, Richmond Hill, Ontario, L4B 3H6, Canada

© Elmer Press Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed in the published articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of the editors and Elmer Press Inc. This website is provided for medical research and informational purposes only and does not constitute any medical advice or professional services. The information provided in this journal should not be used for diagnosis and treatment, those seeking medical advice should always consult with a licensed physician.